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In addition to death and destruction on a scale yet to be determined, the war that broke out on February 24 has disrupted the world distribution of grain, of which Ukraine and Russia are major producers, raising fears of a global food crisis.

The war has also exposed many countries’ dependence on Russian energy, with the European Union looking for alternatives that may not arrive in time for winter, opening up the possibility for Moscow to capitalize on possible European discontent.

As with all wars, the conflict in Ukraine is also a “propaganda war”, with both sides giving much information that cannot be verified by independent sources.

Chronology of the main events related to the war in Ukraine, based on several sources, including the AFP, AP, EFE and Lusa agencies:

February 21st

– Russian President Vladimir Putin recognizes the republics of Donetsk and Lugansk and announces the dispatch of a Russian “peacekeeping” mission to the two breakaway regions in eastern Ukraine.

February 22

– Russian parliament authorizes Putin to use military force outside national territory.

February 23

– Ukraine declares a state of emergency.

– UN Secretary-General António Guterres warns that the world faces a “moment of danger”.

February, 24

– Putin announces a “special military operation” to “demilitarize and denazify” Ukraine, and prevent “genocide” of Russian speakers in the neighboring country.

– The invasion begins minutes after Putin’s communication. At dawn, the first explosions are heard in Kyiv and other cities.

– President of Ukraine, Volodymyr Zelensky, decrees martial law and cuts diplomatic relations with Moscow.

February 25th

– Russian forces advance towards Kyiv, Kharkiv, and Kherson.

– Putin calls on the Ukrainian military to overthrow Kyiv’s regime of “neo-Nazis” and “drug addicts”.

– United States of America (USA) says Russia faces more resistance than expected.

– Zelensky rejects the US offer to leave the country and releases a video to show he remains in Kyiv.

– The European Union (EU) includes Putin and his diplomatic chief, Sergei Lavrov, on the list of Russians targeted by sanctions.

– Russia vetoes the United Nations (UN) Security Council resolution demanding withdrawal of its troops.

– North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) activates a rapid reaction force, which includes the Portuguese military, to “avoid transgressions in the allied territory”.

– Portuguese government announces the immediate granting of visas to Ukrainians on the run and admits that Portugal may suffer consequences from the increase in gas prices as a result of the conflict.

February 26

– Putin reminds the West that Russia has nuclear weapons.

– German Chancellor Olaf Scholz announces that German arms will be sent to Ukraine.

February 27

– EU suspends the use of its airspace by Russian planes and bans broadcasts on Russian state channels.

February 28th

– Ukraine and Russia start negotiations in Belarus, which are suspended after some sessions.

– Zelensky calls for Ukraine’s rapid accession to the EU through a special mechanism.

– EU approves €1,500 million in arms support for Ukraine.

March 1

– US President Joe Biden decrees closure of airspace to Russian planes.

– Iran blames the US for the invasion of Ukraine and calls for an end to the war.

– PCP votes against the European Parliament’s resolution condemning the invasion on the grounds that it “instigates the escalation of confrontation”.

March 02

– UN General Assembly demands that Russia end the offensive, but the resolution supported by 141 of the 193 member states is not binding.

– Natural gas reaches a historic high of 194,715 euros.

– Russian opponent Alexei Navalny, in prison, asks Russians to demonstrate against the invasion and calls Putin “crazy tsar”.

– Russia for the first time admits casualties in Ukraine: 498 soldiers killed and 1,597 wounded.

– China opposes sanctions against Russia and maintains economic and trade ties with Moscow.

March 4th

– Russia attacks Zaporijia nuclear power plant, the largest in Europe.

March 5th

– Zelensky criticizes NATO for not imposing a no-fly zone over Ukraine.

March 6th

– Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan asks Putin for an immediate ceasefire.

March 07

– US and UK announce an embargo on Russian oil and gas.

March 09

– Russian attack on Mariupol maternity hospital causes international outrage.

March 10th

– Talks in Turkey between heads of Russian diplomacy, Sergei Lavrov, and Ukrainian, Dmytro Kuleba, without success.

March 13th

– Russia attacks the Ukrainian base 20 kilometers from the Polish border.

March 16th

– Council of Europe expels Russia.

– Zelensky speaks to the US Congress, via video.

March 24

– Zelensky asks NATO for “unrestricted military assistance”.

March 26th

– In Warsaw, Biden calls Putin a “butcher” and says the Russian leader “cannot remain in power”.

March 29th

– Russia announces a reduction of attacks in the Kyiv region to facilitate an agreement, and Ukraine admits giving up intending to join NATO.

March 31

– NATO says that Russian troops are not withdrawing, but regrouping in the east.

April 02

– Discovery of hundreds of dead bodies in the streets and in mass graves in Bucha, near Kyiv, provokes international outrage against Moscow, which denies the accusations.

April 07

– UN suspends Russia from the Human Rights Council.

April 08

– President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, gives Zelensky a questionnaire on the EU accession process.

– British Prime Minister Boris Johnson meets Zelensky in Kyiv.

– The EU approves the embargo on Russian coal imports.

April 13th

– UN warns that war leaves 1,700 million people exposed to lack of food and energy.

April 14

– Ukraine announces that it has sunk the flagship of the Black Sea Fleet, “Moskva”.

April 19th

– Russia announces the second phase of the Donbass Liberation War.

April 21

– Zelensky speaks by video before the Portuguese parliament and asks for military and diplomatic support.

April 26

– Guterres meets with Putin in Moscow.

April 28

– Guterres meets with Zelensky in Kyiv.

– Russia attacks Kyiv during the UN chief’s visit.

May 02

– UEFA bans Russian clubs from European football competitions in 2022-2023.

May 09

– Ukraine responds to the EU membership questionnaire.

May 12

– UN approves the opening of the investigation into alleged human rights violations by Russian troops.

May 14th

– UN counts more than 14 million displaced by the war, including six million refugees, and says it is the worst crisis of its kind in Europe since the Second World War (1939-1945).

May 16th

– Ukrainian fighters entrenched in the Azovstal factory surrendered to Russian forces. Moscow says 2,400 soldiers surrendered.

McDonald’s announces its exit from the Russian market after 30 years.

May 17

– European Commission warns of the risk of serious gas supply disruption in winter.

May 18

– Sweden and Finland formalize their candidacy for NATO.

– European Commission announces an energy package of 210 billion euros until 2027, for the EU to stop depending on Russia.

– It also announces short-term aid to Ukraine, up to €9 billion, to be made available later this year.

20 of May

– G7 countries commit to mobilizing 20,000 million dollars (more than 19,670 million euros, at current exchange rates) to support Ukraine.

May 21

– Portuguese Prime Minister, António Costa, meets with Zelensky in Kyiv and signs an agreement to grant financial support of 250 million euros.

– Biden gives Ukraine new support of 40,000 million dollars (more than 39,340 million euros).

May 23

– Ukraine sentences a Russian soldier to life in prison for killing an unarmed civilian in the first conflict-related war crimes trial. Upon appeal, the sentence is reduced to 15 years.

May 24th

– Von der Leyen accuses Moscow of using food shortages to blackmail the West.

May 25th

– Russia demands lifting of sanctions to avoid world food crisis.

May, 27

– Ukrainian Orthodox Church announces a break with Moscow Patriarchate for supporting the war in Ukraine.

– UN confirms the death of more than 4,000 civilians and announces a return to Ukraine of 2.1 million people.

– Ukrainian intelligence services admit that the war could last until the end of 2022.

May 29

– Zelensky visits Kharkiv and fires the head of local security.

May 30th

– Russian forces intensify attacks on Donbass.

– EU approves embargo on Russian oil imports until the end of 2022.

– Inflation in Germany rises to new high in almost 50 years.

June 01

– Gazprom announces a 27.6% drop in gas exports until May.

– US announces deployment of HIMARS artillery system, Moscow says Washington is “throwing gasoline on the fire”.

June 02

– Zelensky admits that Russia controls about 20% (about 125,000 square kilometers) of Ukrainian territory.

June 03

– When marking the 100 days of the war, Zelensky tells the Ukrainians that they will win Russia.

– Moscow says it has liberated “many localities” in 100 days and that the offensive will continue until all objectives are reached.

– President of the African Union and Senegal, Macky Sall, meets with Putin and asks the West not to prevent Moscow from sending grain and fertilizers to Africa.

– Germany approves an extraordinary budget of 100,000 million euros to modernize its armed forces.

June 07

– Ukraine opposes the visit of the director of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to the Zaporijia nuclear power plant while it is occupied by Russian forces.

– World Bank (WB) approves financing of 1,400 million euros to pay the salaries of Ukrainian civil servants.

June 08

– Mariupol authorities transport hundreds of bodies found in the rubble of buildings to morgues and landfills.

– Germany decides to keep coal and oil plants to face possible gas shortages.

– Pro-Russian leaders in Zaporijia admit the region’s integration into Russia.

June 09

– Pro-Russian authorities in Donetsk sentenced to death two Britons and a Moroccan accused of fighting alongside Ukrainian forces. UN says the sentence is a war crime.

– Putin compares his policy to that of Tsar Peter I the Great (1672-1725), who invaded parts of Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and Latvia.

June 10

– Pro-Russian separatists from Lugansk begin shipping grain to Russia. Ukraine considers it to be theft.

– Russia leaves the World Tourism Organization.

June 11th

– Russia hands out first passports to inhabitants of Kherson, in southern Ukraine.

June 12

– North Korean leader Kim Jong-un expresses “full support” for Putin.

June 14

– Ukrainian police opened a criminal case to investigate the death of 12,000 people, many of them found in mass graves.

– Russia announces a 40% reduction in gas deliveries to Germany.

15th of June

– Chinese President Xi Jinping assures Putin of support on sovereignty and security issues.

– Biden asks major oil companies to increase production and lower prices and announces new military support to Ukraine of 1,000 million dollars (995 million euros).

– UK announces delivery of GMLRS rocket launch systems to Ukraine.

June 16

– Leaders from Germany, France, Italy, and Romania visit Kyiv to express support for Ukraine’s entry into the EU.

June 17th

– Donetsk separatist leader Denis Puchilin calls on Russia to liberate all of Ukraine, including “the Russian city of Kyiv”.

June 18

– Zelensky visits the port city of Mykolaiv (south), the day after it was bombed.

– Ukrainian authorities report “fierce battles” in Severodonetsk.

June 19

– Russia denounces a partial blockade of the transit of goods between Lithuania and the enclave of Kaliningrad.

June 20

– Russia predicts more than 9% reduction in oil production in 2022 and 2023 due to EU sanctions.

– Zelensky tells the African Union that Africa is held hostage by Russia for Moscow blocking Ukrainian grain exports.

June 23

– EU approves granting Ukraine and Moldova candidate accession status. Zelensky hails “a unique and historic moment”.

– UNESCO says that more than 150 monuments or protected historic sites were damaged or destroyed by the war.

– Germany activates “alert level”, given the 60% drop in Russian gas supplies.

– Portugal accuses Russia of using hunger as a weapon.

– Ukraine announces the arrival of US HIMARS rocket launchers, and the US allocates another 450 million dollars (448 million euros) in military aid.

– Guterres admits, in an interview with Lusa, that the negotiation of an agreement to unlock Ukrainian cereals is the most important task in which he is involved.

June 24

– Ukraine announces withdrawal of its forces from Severodonetsk, in the face of the Russian advance.

June 25th

– Zelensky dismisses the Ukrainian ambassador in Lisbon, diplomat says it is a scheduled rotation.

– Russia announces supply of tactical missiles to Belarus.

June 26

– UK, US, Canada, and Japan ban Russian gold imports.

– Russian Defense Minister visits troops in Ukrainian territory.

June 27

– Russia defaults for the first time in 100 years, according to Bloomberg, but Moscow denies it.

– Putin promises Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro to keep sending fertilizers.

– Ukraine denounces attack on a shopping center in the city of Kremenchuk (center).

June 28

– Turkey lifts veto of Sweden and Finland joining NATO, on the eve of the alliance summit in Madrid.

– Russia declares that war will only end when Ukrainian forces surrender and accept all Russian conditions.

June 29

– In the new strategic concept, NATO declares Russia as “the greatest and most direct threat” and that China “challenges the allied interests, security, and values”.

– NATO begins in Madrid the accession process of Sweden and Finland.

– Zelensky says that Russia has fired more than 2,800 missiles at the country since the beginning of the war and reinforces the demand for weapons.

– Syria joins Russia and recognizes Donetsk and Lugansk.

June 30

– Russia announces withdrawal from the Ukrainian island of Serpent to facilitate the export of cereals. Ukrainian forces say they forced Russian withdrawal.

– UN says 16 million Ukrainians need water, food, and health care.

July 01

– Hungary opposes new EU sanctions and refuses to stop Russian gas purchases.

– Putin blames the West for the war and the food crisis in talks with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

July 3rd

– Russia announces full control of Lugansk.

– Ukrainian army confirms the withdrawal of its forces from Lysychansk, in Lugansk.

– Russia says explosions in a Russian town near the Ukrainian border caused three dead and four injured.

4th of July

– Russian astronauts unfurl Donetsk and Lugansk flags in space.

July 5th

– US basketball player Brittney Griner, detained in Russia for alleged drug smuggling, calls for Biden to intervene. She is later referred to as being able to be part of an inmate exchange between Moscow and Washington.

– Lugano Conference approves guiding principles for the reconstruction of Ukraine, with an investment of 750,000 million dollars (over 747,200 million euros) over 10 years.

– Denmark becomes the first country to ratify the accession of Sweden and Finland.

July 6th

– Russia toughens prison sentences for those who oppose the regime.

– Ukraine says it has completed 70% of reforms to join the EU.

July 7th

– Putin challenges the West to defeat Russia on the Ukrainian battlefield.

july 08

– Russia announces operational pause to restore combat capability.

– Lavrov meets with counterparts from Brazil and Argentina on the sidelines of the G20, in Indonesia.

– Putin warns of the possible catastrophic effect of Western sanctions.

July 9th

– Chinese diplomacy chiefs Wang Yi and US diplomacy Antony Blinken meet in Indonesia.

– Ukraine says a Russian attack on a residential building killed dozens of people.

July 10

– Ukrainian soldiers start training plan in the UK.

July 11

– Putin facilitates the granting of Russian citizenship to all Ukrainians.

July 12

– EU approves another 1,000 million euros of aid to Ukraine, which increases to 2,200 million euros.

– UN confirms the death of more than 5,000 civilians in the war.

July 13

– UN says more than 16,000 people were detained in Russia in anti-war protests.

– North Korea joins Russia and Syria and recognizes Donetsk and Lugansk.

– Hungary declares a state of energy emergency in anticipation of a possible cut by Russia.

July 14th

– The European Commission announces a slowdown in the eurozone economy due to the war and warns of the consequences of a possible cut in the supply of Russian gas.

– Brent oil fell 2.4% to $97.20, the lowest since the start of the war.

– Kiev denounces attack in Vinnytsia (center), which leaves dozens dead, Moscow says aimed at meeting with Western arms suppliers.

July 15th

– Separatist forces announce captive death of British “mercenary”.

– Ukraine accuses Russia of having attacked more than 17,300 civilian targets against just 300 military targets in nearly five months of war.

– Lugansk separatists announce the organization of a referendum on accession to Russia.

July 17th

– Zelensky fires the head of the security services and attorney general, alleging that more than 60 members of the two services worked against the state.

July, 22

– Ukraine, Russia, Turkey, and the UN sign Istanbul agreements to resume the export of grain blocked in Ukrainian ports.

July 23

– Ukraine denounces the Russian attack on the port of Odessa, considered essential to fulfill Istanbul agreements.

July 26

– EU Energy Ministers reach an agreement on a 15% reduction in gas consumption by spring 2023, with Portugal covered by an exception that allows a cut of up to 7%.

July 29

– Attack on Olenivka prison in Donetsk kills 50 Ukrainian prisoners who had surrendered in Mariupol. Ukrainian secret services blame the private military company Wagner, in the service of the Russians. Moscow blames Zelensky and USA.

– Blinken and Lavrov speak for the first time in five months: Blinken says the world will never accept the annexation of territories and Lavrov says that the US “prolongs the Kyiv regime’s agony” by sending weapons.

July 30th

– Russia suspends gas supplies to Latvia.

July 31

– Putin approves a new naval doctrine to mark red lines to the West in the Black, Baltic, and Arctic seas, in the face of geopolitical changes caused by the war.

– Explosion at the Russian naval base in Crimea leaves six injured.

01 of August

– First grain shipment leaves the port of Odessa, under the Istanbul agreements. As of August 18, according to data from the Turkish authorities, 27 ships are carrying about 625,000 tons of grain.

August 08

– US says about 80,000 Russian soldiers were killed or wounded.

August 11th

– New artillery attacks hit Zaporijia nuclear power plant, with Ukraine and Russia blaming each other.

– Scholz defends the gas pipeline from Portugal, Costa says that Germany can count on Portugal’s full commitment to the project.

– Latvia declares Russia as a sponsoring state of terrorism.

August 16th

– Portugal announces that it has granted 49,997 temporary protections to Ukrainians or foreigners since the beginning of the war.

– Explosions at Russian ammunition depot in Crimea. Moscow admits act of sabotage.

August 18

– Zelensky, Erdogan, and Guterres meet in Lviv and defend the demilitarization of the Russian-occupied Zaporijia nuclear power plant.

– Zelensky excludes peace talks with Russia without prior withdrawal of Russian troops.

– Russia deploys three fighter jets with hypersonic missiles to Kaliningrad enclave.

August 19th

– On a visit to Odessa, Guterres calls for the opening of markets to Russian foods. He also warns that electricity produced at the Zaporijia plant belongs to Ukraine, in the face of complaints that Russia intends to disconnect it from the Ukrainian grid.

– France announces that Putin has accepted the IAEA mission to the Zaporijia plant to pass through Ukrainian territory.

– US reinforces military aid to Kiev with 800 million dollars (797 million euros).

August 20th

– Russia accuses Ukrainian forces of using chemical weapons in Zaporijia.

Source: With Gencies

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