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Computer Networking

Communication protocol

A communication protocol is a system of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The protocol defines the rules, syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both. Communicating systems use well-defined formats for exchanging various messages. Each message has…

Block-level storage

Block-level storage is a concept in cloud-hosted data persistence where cloud services emulate the behaviour of a traditional block device, such as a physical hard drive. It is a form of network-attached storage (NAS). Storage in such services is organised as blocks. This emulates the type of behaviour seen in traditional disks or tape storage through storage virtualization. Blocks are identified by an arbitrary and assigned identifier by…

Cloud computing

Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage (cloud storage) and computing power, without direct active management by the user. Large clouds often have functions distributed over multiple locations, each location being a data center. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and typically using a “pay-as-you-go” model which can help in reducing capital expenses but…

Alibaba Cloud

Alibaba Cloud (Chinese: 阿里云; pinyin: Ālǐyún; lit. ‘Ali Cloud’), also known as Aliyun, is a cloud computing company, a subsidiary of Alibaba Group. Alibaba Cloud provides cloud computing services to online businesses and Alibaba’s own e-commerce ecosystem. Its international operations are registered and headquartered in Singapore. Alibaba Cloud offers cloud services that are available on a pay-as-you-go basis, and include Elastic Compute, Data Storage, Relational Databases, Big-Data Processing, Anti-DDoS protection and Content Delivery Networks (CDN). It…

MAC Address Table

Each network card has a unique identifier called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. This address is used in LANs for communication between devices on the same network segment. Devices that want to communicate the need to know each other MAC addresses before sending out packets. Switches also use MAC addresses to make accurate forwarding or…

How Switches Work

The Ethernet switch has become an integral part of the world’s LAN infrastructure. At its core, the Ethernet is a shared network, each node contending for access to precious bandwidth and dealing with the repercussions of collisions. Before switches, hubs received Ethernet frames and forwarded them to every connected device. There was no privacy or…

Describe and verify switching concepts (MAC learning and aging, Frame switching, Frame flooding, MAC address table)

Overview: This post covers a few important switching concepts that describe how a switch operates including MAC learning and aging, frame switching, frame flooding, and the MAC address table. Study Notes: 2.1.a MAC learning To switch frames between LAN ports efficiently, the switch maintains an address table called the MAC table. When the switch receives…

Understanding MAC Table Aging

A software MAC address table is continued on the Cisco ME 2600X. This MAC address table contains the MAC addresses accomplished on all the interfaces of Cisco ME 2600X. MAC learning To exchange frames between LAN ports efficiently, the switch continues an address table called the MAC table. When the switch receives a frame, it…

Describe Switching Concepts

MAC Learning and Aging Learning mac addresses is one of the responsibilities of a switch. The switch transparently observes incoming frames. All the source mac addresses are recorded in the mac-address-table of the switch. It also associates the specific port with a source MAC address. For each connected device, the mac addresses are different. Frame…

Virtualization Fundamentals in Computer Architecture

In this article, I describe the Virtualization Fundamentals in Computer Architecture for CCNA Exam. We know the servers work to provide various services to its clients. The server is generally installed in a data center at some unique place. The servers are built up with high-end hardware a number of processor and a large memory…

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