Share this:

*Portals complement main topics in Smartencyclopedia and expound upon topics by introducing the reader to key articles, images, and categories that further describe the subject and its related topics. Portals also assist in helping editors to find related projects and things they can do to improve Smartencyclopedia and provide a unique way to navigate Smartencyclopedia topics.

*A portal is an internet site designed to agglomerate and distributes content from several different sources in a uniform manner, being an access point to a series of other sites or subsites internally or externally to the domain or subdomain of the company managing the portal.

One World of Information
Main Portals

Culture and the arts

Geography and places

Health and fitness

History and events

Human activities

Mathematics and logic


Natural and physical sciences

People & Bios

Philosophy and thinking

Religion and belief systems

Society and social sciences


Technology and applied sciences

Sir tim berners Lee

Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee OM KBE FRS FREng FRSA FBCS (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English computer scientist best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He is a Professorial Fellow of Computer Science at the University of Oxford and a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Berners-Lee proposed an information management system on 12 March 1989, then implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and server via the Internet in mid-November.

recently added articles
Anti-aircraft Warfare
Anti-aircraft warfare, counter-air, anti-air, AA guns, layered air defence or air defence forces is the battlespace response to aerial warfare, defined by NATO as “all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action”. It includes surface-based, subsurface (submarine-launched), and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements, and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons). It may be used to
Read More
Aerospace force
The Air and Space Force (USSF) is the newest branch of the United States military, established on December 20, 2019. It is responsible for organizing, training, and equipping air and space forces to protect the United States and its allies, deter aggression, and defeat enemies. The Air and Space Force
Read More
Military Branch
Military branches, also known as armed service branches, refer to the distinct operational components or divisions within a country’s armed forces. These branches are responsible for specific aspects of national defense and military operations. The structure and nomenclature of military branches can vary significantly from one country to another, reflecting
Read More
Bacteriorhodopsin (Bop) is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by Haloarchaea, a class of the Euryarchaeota. It acts as a proton pump; that is, it captures light energy and uses it to move protons across the membrane out of the cell. The resulting proton gradient is subsequently converted into chemical energy. Function Chemiosmotic coupling between bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase in the Halobacterium salinarum membrane Bacteriorhodopsin is
Read More
Archaerhodopsin proteins are a family of retinal-containing photoreceptors found in the archaea genera Halobacterium and Halorubrum. Like the homologous bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein, archaerhodopsins harvest energy from sunlight to pump H+ ions out of the cell, establishing a proton motive force that is used for ATP synthesis. They have some structural similarities to the mammalian GPCR protein rhodopsin but are not true homologs. Archaerhodopsins differ from bR
Read More
Calcium imaging
Calcium imaging is a microscopy technique to optically measure the calcium (Ca2+) status of an isolated cell, tissue or medium. Calcium imaging takes advantage of calcium indicators, fluorescent molecules that respond to the binding of Ca2+ ions by fluorescence properties. Two main classes of calcium indicators exist chemical indicators and genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECI). This
Read More
Silchester eagle
The Silchester eagle is a Roman bronze casting dating from the first or second century CE, uncovered in 1866 at Calleva Atrebatum in Silchester, Hampshire, England. It was purchased in 1980 by Reading Museum in Berkshire where it remains on display as of 2023. The Silchester eagle is a wingless
Read More
Halorhodopsin is a seven-transmembrane retinylidene protein from the microbial rhodopsin family. It is a chloride-specific light-gated ion pump found in archaea known as halobacteria. It is activated by green light wavelengths of approximately 578nm. Halorhodopsin also shares sequence similarity to channelrhodopsin, another light-driven ion channel. Halorhodopsin contains the essential light-isomerizable vitamin A derivative all-trans-retinal. Due to the dedication towards discovering
Read More
Anion-conducting channelrhodopsin
Crystal structure of the GtACR1 dimer viewed parallel to the membrane (left) and from the extracellular side (right). Disulfide bonds are shown using a stick model (green), and ATR (orange) is depicted by a sphere model. Anion-conducting channelrhodopsins are light-gated ion channels that open in response to light and let negatively charged ions
Read More
The light-sensitive channelrhodopsin protein consists of two single molecules (light and dark grey). It forms an ion © Volkov et al., Science 2017   Channelrhodopsins are a subfamily of retinylidene proteins (rhodopsins) that function as light-gated ion channels. They serve as sensory photoreceptors in unicellular green algae, controlling phototaxis: movement in response to light. Expressed in cells of other
Read More
Share this: